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Chapter: 12th Zoology : Chapter 13 : Environmental Issues

Environmental Issues: Questions and Answers (Evaluation)

Zoology : Environmental Issues : Book Back Questions Answers: Choose the Correct Answers, Short Answers, brief Answers, Important Questions and Answers



1. Right to Clean Water is a fundamental right, under the Indian Constitution

a) Article 12

b) Article 21

c) Article 31

d) Article 41

Answer: b) Article 21


2. With which of the following, the Agenda 21’ of Rio Summit, 1992 is related to?

a) Sustainable development

b) Combating the consequences of population

c) Mitigation norms of Green House Gases (GHGs) emission.

d) Technology transfer mechanism to developing countries for ‘clean-energy’ production.

Answer: Sustainable development / Sustainable development


3. Which among the following awards instituted by the Government of India for individuals or communities from rural areas that have shown extraordinary courage and dedication in protecting Wildlife?

a) Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar

b) Medini Puruskar Yojana

c) Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award

d) Pitambar Pant National Award

Answer: c) Amrita Devi Bishnoi Award


4. The ‘thickness’ of Stratospheric Ozone layer is measured in/on:

a) Sieverts units

b) Dobson units

c) Melson units

d)Beaufort Scale

Answer: b) Dobson units


5. Which among the following is the most abundant Green-House-Gas (GHG) in the earth’s atmosphere?

a) Carbon dioxide

b) Water Vapour

c) Sulphur Dioxide

d) Tropospheric Ozone

Answer: b) Water Vapour


6. As per 2017 statistics, the highest per capita emitter of Carbon dioxide in the world is

a) USA

b) China

c) Qatar

d) Saudi Arabia

Answer: b) China


7. The use of microorganism metabolism to remove pollutants such as oil spills in the water bodies is known as

a) Biomagnification

b) Bioremediation

c) Biomethanation

d) Bioreduction

Answer: b) Bioremediation


8. The Ozone Day is observed every year on September 16 as on this day in 1987 the ___________was signed for launching efforts to arrest the depletion of the fragile ozone layer in the stratosphere that prevents the harmful ultra-violet rays of the sun from reaching the earth. Fill the correct word in blank.

a) Montreal Protocol

b) Geneva Protocol

c) Kyoto Protocol

d)Nagoya Protocol

Answer: a) Montreal Protocol


9. Which among the following always decreases in a Food chain across tropic levels?

a) Number

b)Accumulated chemicals

c) Energy

d) Force

Answer: c) Energy


10. In the E-waste generated by the Mobile Phones, which among the following metal is most abundant?

a) Copper

b) Silver

c) Palladium

d) Gold

Answer: a) Copper


11. The Hydro chloro fluoro carbons (HCFCs) are the compounds which have the following molecules:

a) Hydrogen

b) Carbon

c) Chlorine

d) Fluorine

Answer: Chlorine


12. SMOG is derived from :

a) Smoke

b) Fog

c) Both A and B

d) Only A

Ans ; c) Both A and B


13. Excess of fluoride in drinking water causes:

a) Lung disease

b) Intestinal infection

c) Fluorosis

d) None of the above

Answer: c) Fluorosis


14. Expand (i) CFC (ii) AQI (iii) PAN

CFC - Chloro Fluro Carbon

AQI - Air Quality Index

PAN - Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate


15. What is SMOG and how it is harmful for us?

1) SMOG is a type of air pollution caused by tiny particles in the air.

2) It is formed of smoke and fog.

Harmful Effects

1) It reduces visibility

2) Breathing becomes more difficult for asthmatic patients and others.


16. List all the wastes that you generate, at home, school or during your trips to other places. Could you very easily reduce the generation of these wastes? Which would be difficult or rather impossible to reduce?

Plastic paper vegetable and fruit peels disposable cups, plates spoons.

Wastes can be easily reduced by the judicious use of the above material.

Wastage of paper can be minimized by writing on both sides of the paper and by using recycled paper.

Plastic and glass waste can also be reduced by recycling and reusing.

Also substituting plastic bag with bio degradable jute bags can reduce wastes generated at home school or during trips.

Domestic sewage can be reduced by optimizing the use of water with bathing cooking and other household activities.

Non-bio degradable waste such as plastic metal broken glass are difficult to decompose because micro- organisms do not have the ability to decompose them.


17. Discuss the causes and effects of global warming. What measures need to be taken to control global warming?

1) Causes of global warming:

Increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases like CO2 methane nitrous oxide CFC's and ozone causes greenhouse effect that leads to warming of the earth.

2) Effects of Global Warming:

Extreme wet and dry conditions can be expected.

Sea level rises

Plant and animal species will migrate in response to climate change.

It affects the flora and fauna.

It results in shortage of food.

It affects the health of the people and organisms.

3) Controlling Measures:

The UNO assured to take steps to control or reduce emissions by factories and auto mobiles.

Trees to be planted

Forests to be conserved.

Use catalytic converters in vehicles to reduce release of gases.

Maintenance of air standards by proper enforcement and monitoring.


18. What would Earth be like without the greenhouse effect?

Green house effect is very essential for the formation of ozone layer in the stratosphere.

Green house gases in the air mainly CO2 methane and water vapour trap radiation from the sun and act like a thermal blanket around the planet.

With out naturally occurring green house gases earth's average temperature would be near O° F or 18° C and covered with ice.

With out greenhouse effect we would not be able to survive.


19. Write notes on the following:

a. Eutrophication

b. Algal Bloom

a) Eutrophication:              

Nutrient enrichment of water bodies due to run-off from land containing nutrients such as nitrates phosphates etc.

b) Algal Bloom

Water pollution can cause eutrophication due to nutrient enrichment.

Due to this over growth of algae is taking place known as algal bloom.

This will affect the quality of water.


20. What effect can fertilizer runoff have on an aquatic ecosystem?

The over use of fertilizers in agriculture get into aquatic eco system and affect in the following ways

It may kill beneficial bacteria

It can cause eutrophication in water bodies

It affects the aquatic animals and their productivity.


21. How can we control eutrophication?

Waste water treatment can control eutrophication.

1) Physical Methods:

Waste water before releasing into water bodies should be treated with such processes like floatation sedimentation filteration and centrifugal separation.

2) Chemical Methods:

It includes,

Generation of insoluble solids.

Produce an in soluble gas.

Non - biodegradable substance be converted into biodegradable substance.

Oxidize or reduce to produce a non-objectionable substances.

3) Biological methods or Bioremediation:

Anaerobic treatment that include oxidation ponds aeration lagoons.

Anaerobic treatment that include anaerobic bio reactors anaerobic lagoon.


22. Why does ozone hole form over Antarctica?

The severe depletion of the Antarctic ozone layer known as the 'Ozone hole" occurs here because of the special atmospheric and chemical condition.

The very low winter temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere cause this ozone hole.


23. Mention the causes of enhanced use of ultraviolet radiation.

Anthropogenic emissions of chloro floro carbons and nitrogen oxides results in depletion of stratospheric ozone layer which protects the earth against deleterious short wave solar radiation.

Asa result the amount of biologically enhanced UV radiation reaching the earth surface increases.


24. Discuss the role of women in protection and conservation of forests.

Role of women in conservation of forests:

In 1730 Maharaja Abhay Singh of Rajasthan wanted to cut trees for the construction of his palace.

Amrita Devi a brave lady came to know about the cutting of trees.

She and many others had hugged the trees (Khejri) to save from cutting.

The king's men killed Amrita Devi and 363 other Bishnois..

The government of Rajesthan honoured this act and in her name "Amrita Devi Bishnoi Smriti Award" is given to people for excellent contribution for conservation of forests.

Chipko Movement:

The villages hugged the trees and prevented the contribution from felling them.

The main aim of this movement was to protect the trees of forests from cutting.


25. Discuss the role of an individual to reduce environmental pollution.

Individual should minimize wastage of resources like electricity.

Individual should prefer watching or use cycle instead of motor vehicles.

Individuals should reuse items.

Use gunny bags instead of plastic bags.

Use water resources efficiently.

Use of refrigerators should be minimized or they are the main source of CFC which is responsible for ozone depletion.

Spread awareness and inspire other people to prevent pollution.


26. How does recycling help reduce pollution?

Recycling prevents the emissions of many green house gases and water pollutants and saves energy.

Using recovered material of generates less solid wastes.

It helps to reduce the pollution caused by the extraction and processing of material.


27. What is the primary purpose of the Kyoto Protocol?

The primary purpose of the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce green house gas emissions as human made CO2 emission is the cause of global warming.

The Kyoto protocol was adopted in Kyoto Japan on 11 December 1997.


28. In what way Peyang conserves the forest?

The Forest man of India Jadav Pay eng created 1360 acres of dense forest in 36 years.

Payeng's forest is now a home to five Royal Bengal tigers deer wild boar and birds.

The Jawaharlal Nehru University invited Payeng in 2012 on "Earth day and honoured him with the title forest man of India".

He was awarded with cash by president APJ. Abdulkalam.

He was awarded with 'Padmasri’.


29. Discuss briefly the following :

a. Catalytic converter

b. Greenhouse gases

c. Ecosan

a) Catalytic converter

A Catalytic converter is an exhaust emission control device that converts toxic gases and pollutants in exhaust gas from an internal combustion engine into less-toxic pollutants.

b) Green house gases

Green house gases trap heat from the atmosphere which makes the earth warmer known as global warming. The effect is known as green house effect. Example for green house gases - Carbondioxide methane nitrous oxide ozone.

c) Ecosan

Ecological sanitation is a sustainable system for handling human excrete by using dry composting toilets.

This system reduces waste water generation and generate natural fertilizers from recycled human excreta.


30. What are some solutions to toxic dumping in our oceans?

The environmental protection agency has enacted several laws to prohibit ocean dumping.

Cut down on industrial waste so they do not spill into the ocean.

Avoid dumping of chemical particles into ocean.

Dumping of plastic should be completely avoided.

Garbage dumping should be restricted.

Agricultural runoff should be restricted.


31. Describe how deforestation might contribute to global warming.

Deforestation means the destruction of forests in order to clear the land and make it available for other uses.

Trees release O2 during photosynthesis.

Hence cutting of tree lead to O2 depletion. 


32. How does forest conservation help to reduce air pollution?

During photo synthesis trees absorb CO2 from the air.

CO2 is one of the main pollutants of air pollution.

Hence forests also reduce air pollution. Forests also prevent soil erosion and keep soil pollution in check.


Extra One mark Questions and Answers


1. DB is a standard abbreviation used for the quantitative expression of

a) The density of bacteria in a medium

b) A particular pollutant

c) The dominant bacillus in a culture

d) A certain pesticide


2. Which one of the following expanded forms of the following acronyms is correct?

a)UNEP : United Nations Environmental Policy

b)EPA : Environmental Pollution Agency

c)IUCN : International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

d)IPCC : International Penal for climate Change


3. In an area where DDT had been used extensively the population of birds declined significantly because

a) Birds stopped laying eggs

b) Earthworms in the area got eradicated.

c) Cobras were feeding exclusively on birds.

d) Many of the birds eggs, laid, did not hatch.


4. Which one of the following is a wrong statement?

a) Most of the forests have been lost in tropical areas.

b) Ozone in upper part of atmosphere is harmful to animals.

c) Greenhouse effect is natural phenomenon

d) Eutrophication is a natural phenomenon in freshwater bodies.


5. Measuring Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a method used for

a) Estimating the amount of organic matter in sewage water.

b) Working out the efficiency of oil driven automobile engines.

c) Measuring the activity of saccharomyces cerevisiae in producing curd on a commercial scales

d) Working out the efficiency of RBCs about their capacity to carry oxygen


6. Kyoto Protocol was endorsed at

a) CoP-3

b) CoP-5

c) CoP-6

d) CoP-4


7. A scrubber in the exhaust of a chemical industrial plant removes

a) Gases like sulphur dioxide.

b) Particulate matter of the size 5 micrometer or above.

c) Gases like ozone and methane

d) Particulate matter of the size 2.5 micrometer or less


8. Rachel Carson’s famous book ‘Silent Spring’ is related to

a) Pesticide pollution

b) Noise Pollution

c) Population explosion

d) Ecosystem management


9. Which of the following is not one of the primary health risks associated with greater UV radiation through the atmosphere due to depletion of stratospheric ozone?

a) Increased skin cancer

b) Reduced immune system

c) Damage to eyes

d) Increased liver cancer


10. Increase in the concentration of the toxicant at successive trophic levels is known as

a) Biodeterioration

b) Biotransformation

c) Biogeochemical cycling

d) Biomagnifications


11. A river with an inflow of domestic sewage rich in organic waste may result in:

a) Drying of the river very soon due to algal bloom

b) Increased population of aquatic food web organisms

c) An increased production of fish due to biodegradable nutrients

d) Death of fish due to lack of oxygen


12. A lake which is rich in organic waste may result in

a)  Drying of the lake due to algal bloom

b) Increased population of fish due to lots of nutrients

c) Mortality of fish due to lack of oxygen

d) Increases population of aquatic organisms due to minerals


13. The highest DDT concentration in aquatic food chain shall occur in

a) Seagull

b) Crab

c) Cell

d) Phytoplankton

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