Social Science : History
THE BEGINNING OF THE MODERN AGE
VI. Answer the following in detail
1. Discuss how Renaissance, Reformation and Geographical discoveries heralded the modern age?
• Heralded the Modern Age
• Geographical Discoveris
• There was a surge of enthusiasm and interest in studying classical literature and art. This creative upsurge was reflected in writings, art, architecture and music.
• Manuscripts of classical literature were collected and printed. This provided stimulus to the followering of renaissance.
• The study of humanities was so popular in the Italian Universities that students from all over Europe flocked there. The idea of humanism was introduced; expressed in literature.
• Great artists produced some of the finest artistic works.
• The critical thinking and inquisitive spirit of Renaissance humanism helped people question such practices of the church.
• Erasmus and Sir Thomas more apart from condemning the corrupt practices of the church and critical of its doctrine.
• The Reformers issued Pamphlets and Published books highlighting the abuses of the Catholic Church.
• Attempts to reform the church before 16th Century met with failure. In the age of reason the moves of the reformers were supported by some of the rulers of the nation - states.
• Henry the Navigator of Portugal established navigation school to train sailors.
• The impulse for seafaring and adventurous spirit to explore uncharted sea waters was kindled by the curiosity generated.
• The travel accounts of Marco polo and Ibn Battula, further fuelled by the crusading spirit of the missionaries to spread the gospel.
• When the Ottomen Turks blocked the land route between the East and the West, the European traders were deprived of the huge profits. This intensified the urge to discover new sea route to Asia.
2. Examine the outcome of the geographical discoveries.
Impact of Geographical Discoveries (Any five)
• The geographical discoveries transformed the european understanding the world. It led to the redrawing the world map.
• The economic centre of Europe shifted from the Italian City states to Spain and Portugal.
• Spain conquested Mexico and South America and made further exploration and defeated the natives and colonized.
• The exported deadly diseases led to the near annililation of the natives in most parts of the Americas.
• The European Countries purchased slaves from Africa who were transported to America. The Trans - Atlantic Trade was a triangular trade. The European Countries Profited immensely from this trade.
• It led to commercial revolution. The chief features of this revolution were the emergence of banking, joint - stock companies and growth of trade.
• The 17th century witnessed the emergence of variours East India companies.
Activities (For Students)
1. In an outline map of World, mark the routes of
a) Bartholomew Diaz b) Vasco-da-Gama c) Columbus d) Magellan
2. Collect pictures of European explorers.
3. Create a model of Mariner's Compass.
4. Construct a model ship of medieval Europe.