Social Science : History
The Classical World
VI. Answer the following in detail
1. Discuss the rise and growth of Athens, pointing out its glorious legacy.
The rise of Athens
• In Athens, the pressure from below resulted the formation of "democracy". The law making power was vested in an assembly open to all freeman.
• Judges and lower officials were chosen by lots. The upper classes considered democracy to be 'the rule of the mole'.
• The Persian danger had united the Greeks. When this danger was removed, they started quarrelling again. The only exception was Athens. There democracy survived for about 200 years.
• Athens had a great leader, Pericles, who held power for 30 years. Despite hostility and disturbance from sports, Athens became a noble city with magnificent buildings. There were great artists and great thinkers and therefore Historians call this the "Age of Pericles".
• The thinkers of the Pericles era sought to find a new objective basis for arriving at truth. The greatest philosophers were Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
• Democritus and Epicurus developed a materialist view of the world. The Historians, Herodotus and Thucydides, lived about this time.
2. Write about India's position during classical position.
India's position during classical period
• The Kushan period corresponded with the last days of the Roman Republic, when Julius caesar was alive.
• The Kushan Empire is said to have sent an embassy to Augustus Caesar who succeeded Julius.
• In south India, Kalabhra period was the corresponding period (4th and 5th AD)
• Teakwood, Pepper, Pearls, Wory, brocades and precious stones were exported from the Malabar Coast to Babylonia, Egypt, Greece and Rome.
• 18 major works of Sangam Age, eight Anthologies (Ettuthogai) and Ten Idylls (Pathupattu) Compiles during the first three centuries of Common era were composed during this period.
Activities (For Students)
1. In an outline map of Europe, the students are to sketch the extent of Western and Eastern Roman Empire.
2. Students are to be guided by teachers to Google the architectural splendours of classical civilizations of Greece, Rome and China.