Social Science : History : Ancient Civilisations
VI. Answer the following in Detail
1. Define the terms Hieroglyphics and Cuneiform with their main features.
Hieroglyphics - The Egyption writing system :
• This pictogram based system of writing is used in the inscriptions on seats and other objects.
• Hieroglyphic writing system attests to their skills in handling symbols.
Cuneiform : The Sumerian writing system.
• Sumerians used this writing system (the shape of the letter is in the form of wedge) in the epic of Gilgamesh for commericial transactions and writing letters and stories.
• The clay tablets contain loads of information an Civilisation.
2 To what extent is the Chinese influence reflected in the fields of philosophy and literature.
• Lao Tze : The founder of Taoism. He argued that desire is the root cause of all evils. Master archive keeper of chou state.
• Confucius : He insisted on cultivation of one's own personal life. Famous Chinese philosopher and political reformer. "If personal life is cultivated, family life is regulated; and once family life is resulted, national life in regulated" said.
• Mencius : The Philosopher who travelled throughout china and offered counsel to the rulers.
• The military strategist Sun - Tzu - Art of war.
• The official chronicle of the state - The spring and Autumn Annals
• China's earliest book on medicine codified during the time of Han Dynasty - The yellow Emperor's canon of Medicine.
3. Write about the hidden treasure of Indus civilisation.
The hidden treasure of Indus Civilisation :
• 'Indus Civilisation' is one of the oldest civilisations. It is also known as the 'Harappan civilisation' since Harappa was the first site to be discovered.
• Fortification, well - planned sheets and lanes and drainages can be observed in the Harappan towns.
• They used baked and unbaked bricks and stones for construction. A civic authority controlled the planning.
• The tank called the Great Bath at Mohenjo-Daro is an important structure, well paved with several adjacent rooms.
• Some unearthed structures have been identified as the granary.
• The Harappans used metal and stone ornaments. They also used cotton and silk textiles. They used copper and gold ornaments.
• The Harappans had close trade links with the Mesopotamians.
• The worshipped mother Goddess. Fire altars have been Identified at kalibangan. burials were elaborate.
• The authors of the Harappan civilisation are not known since the script has not been deciphered.
STUDENT ACTIVITIES (For Students)
• Mark the areas of Bronze Age civilisation on the world map.
• Prepare a chart on the pyramids and the mummies.
• Collect the pictures of the seals and the pottery of Indus people.