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Chapter: 9th Social Science : History: The Middle Ages

Answer the following briefly

Social Science : History: The Middle Ages : Book Back Important Questions, Answers, Solutions : Answer the following briefly

V. Answer the following briefly

 

1. The Great wall of China.

• The warring states in China built defensive walls to protect themselves from enemies from the north between 8th and 7th centuries B.C.

• From east to west, during chin Dynasty, the separate walls were connected and consequently stretched for about 5000 kilometres. This wall considered to be one of the wonders of the world was further extended and strengthened and now it is 6700 Kilometres in length.

 

2. Impact of Crusades.

• Crusades ended the feudal relations. They broke away from their bondage to the soil.

• Increasing demand for products of the East led to expansion of trade. Venice, Genoa, Pisa emerged as important commercial centres. Constantinople ceased to be the middle man in the trade between the East and west.

• Its influence strengthened the monarchy in France and England. The notable outcome was the less of prestige suffered by Papacy.

 

3. How was Feudalism organized in the Middle Ages?

The feudal system centred around Vassalage.

• The King - Representative of God. The head of the feudal regime. Distributed the lands to Lords.

• Lords - The great nobles known as dukes, Counts and earls. Got Lands and Vassals to king. The nobles divided and distributed their 'fief' to lesser nobles called viscounts.

• Viscounts - Got 'fief' from the nobles and became vassals.

• The Knights - Vassals to Lords. Fiefs could not be divided.

• The Peasants - They were at the bottom level. They were known as the villeins or serfs

 

4. Write about the two instruments used by Medieval Pope to assert his authority.

Excommunication : Depriving of all the privileges of a Christian. Denied the right to sacraments in consecrated ground.

Interdict: To deny benefits of religion to a ruler's subject. Intended to kindle resentment against the ruler.

 

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