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Chapter: 10th Social Science : History : Chapter 8 : Nationalism: Gandhian Phase

Answer the following briefly

Social Science : History : Nationalism: Gandhian Phase : Book Back Important Questions, Answers, Solutions : Answer the following briefly

V. Answer the following briefly

 

1. Describe the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

• Two prominent leaders Saifuddin Kitchlew and Dr. Satyapal were arrested.

• On 13 April 1919 a public meeting was arranged at Jallianwalabagh in Amritsar in defiance of the Rowlatt Act.

• Thousands of people assembled there.

• The British troops commanded by General Dyer surrounded the Bagh on all sides

• Dyer ordered his men to shoot the crowd without any warning.

• The firing lasted for ten minutes.

• More than thousands were wounded and 379 were killed.

Rabindranath Tagore returned his knighthood and Gandhi surrendered his Kaiser - i - Hind medal in protest.


2. Write a note on the Khilafat Movement.

• The First World War ended in 1918.

The Caliph of Turkey, who was the head of muslims all over the world was given a harsh treatment.

The Ali brothers - Mohamed Ali and Shaukat Ali started a mass movement of the muslims in support of the Caliph. This movement was known as Khilafat movement.

• Gandhiji supported the Khilafat movement and he saw in it an opportunity to unit Hindus and Muslims.


3. Why did Gandhi withdraw the Non Cooperation Movement?

At Chauri Chaura in Uttar Pradesh on February 5, 1922 a procession of the nationalists was organised.

• The procession turned violent because of police action.

• As the police found themselves outnumbered, they shut themselves inside the police station.

• The mob burnt the police station killing 22 policemen.

• Gandhi was upset over this and withdrew the Non Co - operation movement immediately.


4. Why was Simon Commission boycotted?

• All the members of Simon Commission were English men. It did not have any Indian member.

• The Indians were humiliated and angered that there was no Indian member and they had been denied the right to decide their own future. So they boycotted the Simon Commission.

 

5. What is Poorna Swaraj?

The Congress men were not satisfied with dominion status and they wanted Poorna Swaraj. Poorna Swaraj means complete independence.     


6. Write a note on Bhagat Singh.

• Bhagat Singh and his comrades reorganized the HRA and renamed it as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.

• Sanders, the British Police officer, responsible for the death of Lala Lajpat Rai was assassinated.

• Bhagat Singh and Dutt threw a smoke bomb inside the Central Legislative Assembly in 1929.

• Bhagat Singh was arrested and sentenced to death.

• Bhagat Singh's courage was an inspiration for the youths in India.


7. What are the terms of the Poona Pact?

• The principle of separate electorates was abandoned. Instead, the principle of joint electorate was accepted with reservation of seats for the depressed classes.

• Reserved seates for the depressed classes were increased from 71 to 148. In the Central Legislature 18 percent of the seats were reserved.

 

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