V. Answer in detail
1. Write a paragraph about UDHR.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
• The Universal Declaration of a Human Rights is a milestone document in the history of human rights.
• It was drafted by the representatives with different legal and cultural backgrounds from all regions of the world.
• The Declaration was proclaimed by The United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10th December 1948 (General Assembly resolution 217A) as a common standard of achievement of all people and all nations.
• There are 30 articles in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and it guarantees freedom of expression as well as civil, political, social, economic and cultural rights.
Social, Economic and Cultural Rights:
• Social rights are necessary for full participation in the society. Economic rights guarantee every person to have conditions under which they are able to meet their needs. They are a part of a range of legal principles through which economic equality and freedom are preserved in a State.
• Cultural rights are human rights that aim at assuring the enjoyment of culture and its components in conditions of equality, human dignity and nondiscrimination.
Civil and Political Rights:-
• Civil and Political rights protect an individual's freedom from infringement by the government, social organizations and private individuals.
• These rights ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state.
2. What are fundamental duties? How would you follow these in your school premises?
• These are in the form of duties and responsibilities of citizens. 'The original Constitution which came into force with effect from 26th January, 1950 did not contain Fundamental Duties.
• These were incorporated in the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act in 1976. the Constitution states eleven Fundamental Duties as given below:
Method to follow fundamental duties:
• Give respect to National Emblem
• Join the movements in schools
• Protect natural environment
• Provide education for all
• Join together to implement fundamental duties.
3. How does the National Human Rights Commission protect our rights?
National Human Rights Commission:-
• The National Human Rights Commission is an autonomous body constituted on 12th October 1993 under the protection of Human rights Act, 1993.
• It consists of a chairman and few other members.
• NHRC is responsible for the protection and promotion of human rights in India defined by the Act as rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the international covenants.
Functions of NHRC:
• To inquire into the violation of human rights or negligence in the prevention of such violation by a public servant
• To intervene in court proceedings relating to human rights.
• To undertake and promote research in the field of human rights.
• To engage in Human rights education among various selections of society
• To encourage the effects of NGOs and institutions working in the field of human rights.
4. What are the benefits for workers provided by labour law?
• The constitution ensures right to equality, equality of opportunity in public employment, right to form associations and unions, right to livelihood, prohibits trafficking, forced labour and child labour.
• Article 39(d) ensures equal wages to male and female workers for equal work.
Dr.B.R. Ambedkar's contribution to labourers:
• Reduction in factory Working Hours (8 hours a day)
• Compulsory Recognition of Trade Unions
• Employment exchange in India
• Employees State Insurance (ESI)
• Minimum wages
• Coal and Mica Mines Provident Fund
5. How do you enjoy the fundamental rights in your life?
• Fundamental rights make the life of people meaningful.
• Right to equality is the guaranteed by our constitution. As a result of this no discrimination is shown any where on the basis of caste, race, religion and place of birth.
• Next is the right to freedom. As a student I enjoy the freedom of speech and expression. We can move freely throughout India.
• Right against exploitation protect children from exploitation.
• I have the right to follow my religion without any fear.
• Cultural and education rights give us the right to preserve our culture. No educational institutions can deny admission to us on the basis of caste, colour, creed or religion.
• Right to constitutional remedies protects and safeguard all other rights. Since all these rights are guaranteed by our constitution. We can approach a court if these rights are denied to us.
VI. Project and Activity (For Students)
1. How do you protect yourself from child abuse / sexual exploitation and traffickling.
2. Write an article titled "my country, my Rights".