Social Science : History
VI. Answer in detail
1. Enumerate the causes for the Second Industrialization in the USA.
Manual labour - based to machine based manufacturing.
• (England citizen) having worked in a cotton mill from age 10, had gained enough experience to operate a mill. On Learning that Americans were interested in the new techniques, slater departed for Newyork in 1789 illegally.
• Slater offered his services to moses Brown and in 1789 he made the first water - powered roller spinning textile mill. By 1800, Slater's mill had been duplicated by many others. He grow wealthier and his techniques more and more popular Andrew Jackson, the US President hailed him as "Father of the American Industrial Revolution".
The technological innovation by the US.
• Robert Fulton - Steamboat service (On the Hudson River)
• Samuel F.B. Morse - Telegraph.
• Elias Have - Serving machine.
• The following inventions changed the world beyond recognition.
- Thomas Alva Edison - Electric bulb.
- Alexander Graham Bell - Telephone.
Completion of Transcontinental Railroad (1869)
• Industrialisation went on at a frantic pace. The railroad transported people, raw materials and products. There was unprecedented urbanisation and territorial expansion in the US.
Government support for the Industrial growth.
• The US government supported the industrial growth by providing land for construction of railroads.
• Andrew Carnegie cantrolled every aspect of the steel making process.
• "The Industrial Revolution quickened the process of the transition of the united states from a rural to an urban society."
2. What were the effects of Industrial Revolution of England on India?
• Until the middle of 18th century India was known for its excellence in manufactures as well as in agriculture.
• The invention of flying shuttle by John Kay and the inventions of Hargreaves, Arkwright and Crompton accelerated the process of spinning and weaving. As Indian cotton manufactures flooding in England, a law was enacted prohibiting the use of Indian calicoes and silks.
• The weavers of Bengal suffered a lot. The company insisted for cultivation of commercial crops required for British industries in England.
• India lost old industrial position and became an exporter of raw material.
• The export of Dacca muslin to England was stopped by the first guarter of 19th century. Because of the competition from USA,. the export of raw cotton from India had steadily dwindled. The Indian weavers were thrown out of employment.
• Millions died of starvation of famines. To escape starvation deaths peasants and artisans had to make out of the country opting to working an plantations in British Empire colonies. They worked on plantations as indentured (Penal Contract) labourers under wretched service and living conditions.
VII. Activities (For Students)
1. Organize a debate on the positive and negative aspects of Industrial Revolution.
2. Prepare a list of fabrics and designs and the places of production in India.