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Chapter: 10th Social Science : History : Chapter 10 : Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu

Answer in detail

Social Science : History : Social Transformation in Tamil Nadu : Book Back Important Questions, Answers, Solutions : VI. Answer in detail VII. Students Activity

VI. Answer in detail


1. Attempt an essay on the foundation and development of Tamil Renaissance in the 19th Century.

Foundation of Tamil renaissance:

• The rationalistic thoughts and the introduction of printing press supported the process of Tamil renaissance.

• A number of Tamil secular texts were published.

• Tamil scholars like U.V.Swaminathar and Damotharanar played an important role.

• Damotharanar collected palm-leaf manuscripts of Tamil literature and grammar. U.V. Swaminathar published classical texts like Civakachinthamani, Paththupattu, Chilapathikaram and Purananuru.


• The publication of these ancient literary texts created awareness among the people about their historical tradition, language, literature and religion.

• Modern Tamils founded their social and cultural identity on the ancient Tamil classics, collectively called the Sangam literature.

• F.W. Ellis formulated the theory that the South Indian languages belonged to a separate family which was not related to the Indo-Aryan family of languages.

• This statement was supported by Robert Caldwell in his book 'A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages'.

• Tamil intellectuals identified the fundamental differences between Tamil and Sanskrit and Aryan Brahmanism.

• They argued that Tamil was a language of Dravidian people who are non-Brahmins.

• Tamil renaissance contributed to the origin and growth of Dravidian consciousness.

• Thiru. Vi. Kalyana Sundaram, Maraimalai Adigal, Subramania Bharathi, S. Vaiyapuri and Bharathidasan have also contributed to the revival of Tamil literature through their writings.

2. Describe the background for the formation of the Justice Party and point out its contribution to the cause of social justice.

Formation Of the Justice Party:

• On 20 November 1916 non Brahmin leaders like Natesanar, Sir Pitti Theyagarayar, Alamelu Mangai and T.M. Nair formed the South Indian Liberal Federation.

• The first election was held in 1920 and the Justice party formed the first ever Indian cabinet in Madras.

Contributions of the Justice Party:

• Justice Party published newspapers such as.Dravidian, Justice and Andhra Prakasika to propagate the ideals of the party.

• The Justice party government widened education and employment opportunities for the majority of the population.

• The Justice party removed the legal hindrances restricting inter-caste marriage.

• It broke the barriers that prevented the Adi-Dravidars from using public wells and tanks.

• Public schools were ordered to admit Adi-Dravidar children.

• Hostels were established for Ad-Dravidar children.

• Women were permitted to participate in the electoral politics in 1921.

• It worked for communal representation for various communities.

• Orders were passed for equal distribution among various castes in appointments.

• In 1924 the Staff Selection Board was created.

• In 1929 the Public Service Commission was established.

• The Justice party introduced the Hindu Religious Endowment Act.

• Anybody irrespective of their caste were permitted to become members of temple committee.

3. Estimate Periyar E.V.R’s decisive contribution to the social transformation of Tamil Nadu.

E.V.R. Periyar was the founder of the Self Respect Movement.

Caste based:

• Periyar advocated a casteless society devoid of rituals and differences based on birth.

• Periyar as the president of Tamil Nadu Congress Committee proposed a resolution regarding the rights of untouchables to temple entry.

• Lower caste people were denied admission into the temple and the streets around the temple at Vaikom. Periyar led the temple entry movement against this and succeeded in his attempt.

• Periyar was disturbed by the caste based discrimination in the dining hall at the Cheranmadevi Gurukulam. He objected this and protested against this discrimination.

• Periyar started the Self Respect movement in 1925.

• He insisted the introduction of reservation in legislative bodies for non-Brahmins.

• He supported Ambedkar's demand for separate electorate for scheduled castes.

• He advocated self respect marriages.

Through newspapers:

• Periyar started a number of newspapers like Kudi Arasu, Revolt, Viduthalai and Puratchi. He exposed the voices of non-Brahmins and minorities through newspapers.


• Periyar opposed the introduction of Hindi in schools.

• He criticized Kula Kaivi Thittam and opposed it.

Periyar, a Feminist:

• Periyar condemned child marriage and devadasi system.

• He supported women's right to divorce and property.

• He welcomed equal rights for males and females in property.

• Periyar's Self Respect Movement worked for women's emancipation. 


VII. Students Activity


1. Students can be taught to distinguish between Labour Movement and Trade Union Movement. Project work on the activities of local trade union organisations may be done by students.

2. Students can compile the activities of the local writers’ associations or women’s collectives.


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