1. Estimate the role of Mao Tse tung in making China a communist country.
• After the death of Sun Yat Sen the Leader of the Kuomintang was Chiangkai Shek.
• The Communist party was under Mao Tse Tung and Chou En Lai.
Mao as organizer of Peasants:
• Mao understood that Kuomintang grip on the towns was very strong. So he concentrated his energies on organising peasantry.
• When the relationship between Kuomintang and Communist party broke, a few hundred Communists led by Mao retreated into the wild mountains.
• There they stayed for seven years. The Kuomintang could not enter the mountains.
• The campaign against the Communists was distracted as Chiang Kai Shek had to deal with the constant threat from Japan and also the attacks from war lords.
• Chiang Kail Shek circled around the Communists.
• Mao wanted to move out of Hunan.
• In 1934 the Communist army of about 100,000 set out on the Long march. In 1935 Mao reached northern Sheni after crossing 6000 miles only with 20,000 members.
• By 1937 Mao had become the leader of over 10 million people of China.
• With the surrender of the Japanese, both the Kuomintang and the communists tried to capture power.
• In this race, Kuomintang was successful.
• With the support of the USA, the whole adminstration fell into hands of Kuomintang.
Role of Mao Tse Tung:
• So, Mao was keen on obtaining the.support of the middle class.
• He declared that what the communists wanted was the rule of the people, and not the dictatorship.
National People's Congress:
• In September 1949, 650 delegates from the Communist party met and elected the central Governing council with Mao as Chairman.
• The People's Republic of China was established under the leadership of Mao Tse Tung.
2. Narrate the history of transformation of Council of Europe into an European Union.
• One of the momentous decisions taken in the post - War II era was to integrate the states of Western Europe. In doing so the Europeans wanted.
i) To prevent further European wars by ending the rivalry between France and Germany.
ii) To create a united Europe to resist any threat from Soviet Russia.
iii) To form a third fore . in the world to counter - balance the strength of the US and USSR.
iv) To make full use of the Economic and military resources of Europe by organizing them on a continental scale.
1. Council of Europe: In May 1949 ten countries met in London and signed to form a Council of Europe. The Council of Europe was established with its headquarters at Strasbourg.
2. European coal and steel Community: The European Defence Community (EDC) and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) were established.
3. European Economic Community: Six countries belonging to ECSC signed the Treaty of Rome and established the European Economic Community. (EEC) or the European Common Market.
• Its headquarters was at Brussels. It eliminated barriers to the movement of goods, services and capital.
• A common agricultural policy and a common external trade policy were evolved.
4. Single European Act: The Single European Act came into force on July 1, 1987. Each member was given multiple votes depending on the population.
5. European Union: The Maastricht Treaty was signed on February 7, 1992. It created the European Union. Today the European Union has 28 member countries.
1. Divide the class into two groups. Let one group act as supporters of USA and the other group act as supporters of Soviet Union, Organise a debate.
2. Involving the entire class, an album may be prepared with pictures relating to Korean, Arab-Israeli and Vietnam Wars to highlight the human sufferings in terms of death and devastation.