1. Trace the circumstances that led to the rise of Hitler in Germany.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party' (Nazi Party) was founded in Munich in 1919 by a group of seven members. One of them was Adolf Hitler.
• During world War I, Hitler served the Bavarian army.
• As a good speaker he won the hearts of the people.
• In 1923, he attempted to capture power. But he failed. So he was jailed.
• During his time in prison, he wrote the book 'Mein Kampf'.
• In the Presidential election of 1932, the Communist party polled about 6,000,000 votes.
• Alarmed capitalists and property owners began to support Fascism. Hitler used this opportunity to usurp powers.
Nazi State of Hitler:
• As the communists refused to collaborate with the democrats the Republican government fell.
The industrialists, bankers and junkers prevailed upon President Von Hindenburg to designate Hitler as Chancellor in 1933. This Nazi state of Hitler was known as the Third Reich.
• Hitler declared all the political parties except the Nazi party as illegal.
• He introduced many reforms and the whole country came under his control.
• In August 1934, Hindenburg died. Hitler became both the President and Commander in Chief of the army, besides being the Chancellor.
2. Attempt a narrative account of how the process of decolonization happened in India during the inter-war period (1919-39).
The decolonization process started in India from the beginning of 20th century with the launch of the Swadeshi Movement in 1905. There was rapid political as well as economic changes at the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.
Dyarchy in Provinces:
• The Government of India Act of 1919 introduced Dyarchy in the provinces. It provided for elected provincial assemblies as well as for Indian ministers to hold certain portfolios under Transferred subjects.
• The Indian National Congress rejected the arrangements under Dyarchy and decided to boycott the legislature.
Lack of measures to industrialise India:
• There was no change in the colonial economic policy, despite the discriminating protection given to certain industries such as sugar, cement and chemicals from 1921.
• The Government of British India provided incentives for the British iron and steel industry by guaranteeing purchasing contracts. But in the case of indigenous industries, support was only in the form of providing, "technical advice and education" sponsored by the government.
Impact of Depression on Indian Agriculture:
• The Great Depression gave a death blow to Indian agriculture and indigenous manufacturing sector. The value of farm produce declined by half, but the land rent to be paid by the peasant remained unchanged.
• Farmers and Indian manufacturers had to sell their gold and silver resources to subsist and survive. The great fall in prices prompted Indian nationalists to demand protection for the internal economy.
Government of India Act, 1935:
• This Act provided for greater power of the local Governments and the introduction of direct elections.
• The Indian National Congress won a resounding victory in most of the provinces. Without consulting the Congress ministries, the British involved India in the World War II. So the Congress ministries in the provinces resigned from office.
3. Describe the rise and growth of nationalist politics in South Africa.
• There were two main political parties in South Africa.
❖ The Unionist party (mainly British)
❖ The South Africa Party (largely Afrikaners / Boers)
• Botha, the first Prime Minister, belonged to the South Africa Party ruled in cooperation with the British.
• A militant section of the South Africa Party formed the National Party under Herzog.
• In the 1920 elections the National party gained 44 seats. The South Africa Party, now led by Smuts, secured 41 seats.
• At this Juncture the British-dominated Unionist Party merged with the South Africa Party. This gave Smuts a majority over the militant Afrikaner- controlled National Party.
1. Each student may be asked to write an assignment on how each sector and each section of population in the USA came to be affected by the Stock Market Crash in 1929.
2. A group project work on Vietnam War is desirable. An album or pictures, portraying the air attacks of the US on Vietnam and the brave resistance put up by the Vietnamese may be prepared.