V. Answer in brief
1. Define soil.
• Soil is the uppermost layer of the land surface, usually composed of minerals, organic matter, living organisms, air and water.
2. Name the types of soil found in India.
• Alluvial Soils
• Red Soils
• Forest and mountain soils
• Saline and alkaline soils
• Black soils
• Laterite soils
• Arid and desert soils
• Peaty and marshy soils.
3. State any two characteristics of black cotton soil.
• It consists of calcium and magnesium carbonates, high quantities of iron, aluminium, lime and magnesia.
• It is rich in potash, lime, aluminium, calcium and magnesium. Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphoric acid and humus.
• It has high degree of moisture retentivity.
4. Define Agriculture.
• Agriculture is the process of producing food for people, fodder for cattle, fiber and many other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock)
5. State the types of agriculture practices in India.
• Subsistence farming
• Shifting agriculture (Slash and burn cultivation)
• Intensive farming
• Dry farming
• Mixed farming agriculture
• Terrace farming
6. Name the seasons of agriculture in India?
• Kharif Season (June - September)
• Rabi Season (October - March)
• Zaid Season (April - June)
7. Mention the plantation crops of India.
8. What do you mean by livestock?
• The word livestock literally means "animals kept on a farm".
• It refers to animals kept in a farm like goats, sheep, baffaloes and pigs.
• Livestock in an integral component of the farming system in India.
9. Write a brief note on the categories of fisheries in India?
In India, fishing is categorised into two types.
Marine or Sea fisheries:
• It includes coastal, off-shore and deep sea fisheries. It is done mainly on the continental shelf.
• Kerala leads in the marine fishing.
Inland or Fresh water fisheries:
• Rivers, lakes, canals, ponds, reservoirs, tanks are the sources of fresh water. They provide fresh water fisheries. 50% of the country's total fish production comes from the inland fisheries. Andhra Pradesh leads in Inland fishing.