VIII. Answer in a paragraph
1. State any five types of soil in India and explain the characteristics and distribution of soil.
Formation - Sediments deposited by streams and rivers.
Chemical properties - Rich in potash, phosphoric acid, lime and carbon compounds but poor in nitrogen
• Light coloured (Khadar)
• Dark in colour (Bhangar)
• Ganga and Brahmaputra river valleys
• Plains of Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal and Bihar
Formation - Derived from basalts of Deccan trap.
Chemical properties –
• Consist of calcium and magnesium carbonates, high quantities of iron, aluminium, lime and magnesia.
• Rich in potash, lime, aluminium, calcium and magnesium
• Poor in Nitrogen Phosphoric acid and humus
Nature - Sticky when wet, High degree of moisture retentivity
Colour - Black colour, due to presence of titanium and iron.
• Maharashtra and Malwa plateau.
• Kathiawar peninsula
• Telangana and Rayalaseema.
• Northern part of Karnataka
Formation - Decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks like granites and gneisses.
Chemical properties –
• Rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium..
• Poor in Nitrogen, humus, lime and Phosphoric acid
Nature- - • Light texture, porous friable presence of limited soluble salts.
• Eastern parts of Deccan plateau
• Southern states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Chota Nagpur Plateau (Jharkhand)
Formation - Formed by the process of leaching.
Chemical properties -Composed of hydrated oxides of iron and aluminium.
Nature -More acidic on higher areas poor in high level. Cannot retain moisture.
Forest and mountain Soils:
Formation - Due to mechanical weathering caused by rain and temperature
Chemical properties - Deficient in potash, phosphorous and lime.
Nature - Light. Sandy and thin, Rich in humus.
Distribution - Jammu and Kashmir, Himachai Pradesh and Uttarkhand.
Arid and desert Soils:
Formation - Formed due to dry climate, high temperature and accelerated evaporation.
Chemical properties - Contain soluble salts and alkaline. Poor in organic matter and nitrogen.
Nature - Light in colour, low humus, friable nature and low in moisture.
Distribution - Rajasthan, Northern Gujarat and Southern Punjab. .
2. What is Multipurpose projects and write about any two Multipurpose projects of India.
Multipurpose project is a scientific management of water resources in India. Construction of dam across rivers is aimed at many purposes. Various purposes of a dam are Irrigation, Hydro power generation, water supply for drinking and industrial purpose, controlling floods, development of fisheries and navigation. There are a number of Multipurpose River Valley projects in India.
• This project is constructed across the river Sutlej. It is the highest gravity dam in the world.
• The states benefited are Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.
• The area of irrigation is 52,609 sq.km.
• It produces 1500 Megawatts of hydro power.
• This project is constructed across the river Mahanadi. It is the largest dam in the world.
• The state benefited is Orissa.
• The area of irrigation is 1,41,600sq.km.
• It produces 347.5 Megawatts of Hydro power.
3. Bring out the characteristics of Intensive and Plantation farming.
• It is an agricultural intensification and mechanization system.
• It aims to maximize yields from available land through various means such as heavy use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
• Plantation crops are cultivated for the purpose of exports.
• Plantation farming in practised in large estates on hilly slopes.
• Tea, coffee, rubber and spices are the major plantation crops of India.
• Plantation farming is practised mainly in the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, West Bengal, Karnataka, Assam and Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
4. Examine the geographical conditions favourable for the cultivation of rice and wheat.
Rice: Rice is an indigenous crop. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China.
• Rice is a tropical crop, growing mainly with mean temperature of 24°C and annual rainfall of 150 cm.
• Deep fertile clayey or loamy soils are suited for rice cultivation. It also needs abundant supply of cheap labour.
Rice in India is sown in three ways.
i) Broadcasting ii) Ploughing (Drilling) iii) Transplanting
• Leading rice producing states are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Odisha, Assam and Haryana.
Wheat: Wheat is the second most important food crop of our the country after rice.
• Wheat needs 10-15°C at the time of sowing and 20-25°C at the time of ripening of grains.
• It accounts for 22% of total area in our country.
• Over 85% of wheat production comes from 5 states namely Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
• The black soil tract of the Deccan covering parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat also contribute a major wheat production.
IX. Hot questions
1. Can you imagine a world without agriculture?
It is impossible to imagine a world without agriculture. Without agriculture we can't get food or vegetables or fruits. Then how can we survive?. For how long can we live with only water and air?. Without agriculture the livestock too cannot survive. We can't have dress materials if agriculture fails. Factories that have raw materials from agriculture cannot function. Unemployment would be higher. There would be scarcity of fresh air to breath.
2. Can you give solutions for the prevailing water disputes in South India?
The availability of water is an important factor for agriculture. india is a monsoon country with uneven distribution of rainfall. So irrigation is an important factor for agriculture. The major problem that agriculturists face is the water problem. So priority should be given to find solutions for the water dispute in our country, particularly in South India.
River linking project:
• Perennial rivers may be linked with non-perennial rivers. It will enable the farmers to get water throughout the year.
• But it is a major and complicated project because it requires huge investment and the cooperation of other states.
Building of more dams:
• More dams should be constructed wherever it is possible. It involves huge investment and the co-operation of other states. By building dams we can prevent huge amount of water draining into sea uselessly.
Raising the height of dams:
• The height of the dams should be raised so that the storing capacity of the dams be increased.
Cleaning the tanks:
• Cleaning the tanks and desilting of tanks is the urgent need of the state. By doing so we can prevent floods and wastage of water.