V. Answer in Detail
1. State the aims of migration policies.
• A large part of migration is due to poverty and insecurity faced by a large section of rural people. So the focus of intervention should be in rural areas. Rural development policies are essential to reduce poverty and insecurity in order to reduce migration.
• To reduce the migrant streams : Redirection of migrant streams, away from big metropolitan cities is desirable. It will help in reducing spatial inequalities by suitable strategies such as developing a more dispersed pattern of urbanisation.
2. Discuss the patterns of migration.
The pattern of migration is very complex.
• Rural to rural; rural to urban; urban to rural; urban to urban.
• Short, medium and long distance migration streams.
• Long term stable migration and short-term circulatory type of movements. These streams consist of different types of migrants. Each type has its own reason for migration. The extent and nature of these migrant streams depend on:
• Pressure and aspiration experienced by people at the origin of migration.
• Constraints imposed on mobility at the origin of migration.
• Opportunities at the destination and availability of information regarding these opportunities.
• The cost of migration.
3. Elucidate about some of the interesting findings on migration in Tamil Nadu.
• Of the total migrants in Tamil Nadu, 65% have migrated abroad. 35% have moved within the country.
• Maximum migrants are from Chennai district. It is followed by Coimbatore, Ramanathapuram and Tiruchy districts.
• Of the total migrants 20% have gone to Singapore, 18% to UAE, 16% to Saudi Arabia and 13% to USA. People have also migrated to Malaysia, Kuwait, Oman, Quatar, Australia and England
• Of the total migrants 15% are women and 85% are men.
4. Analyse the educational qualification of migrants from Tamil Nadu in 2015.
• About 7% were illiterates.
• 30% have completed schooling. (Class 10)
• 10% have completed class 12
• 15% have undergone some vocational training.
• 11% were graduates
• 12% were professionally qualified.
• 11% had post graduate degrees.