V. Answer briefly
1. List the factors affecting climate of India.
• Distance from the sea
• Monsoon wind
• Relief features
• Jet streams
2. What is meant by ‘normal lapse rate’?
• When the altitude increases, the temperature decreases.
• Temperature decreases at the rate of 6.5°C for every 1000 metres of ascent. This is called "Normal lapse rate”.
3. What are ‘jet streams’?
• Jet streams are the fast moving winds blowing in a narrow zone in the upper atmosphere.
• According to the Jet stream theory, the onset of southwest monsoon is driven by the shift of the sub tropical westerly jet from the plains of India towards the Tibetan Plateau.
• The easterly jet streams cause tropical depressions both during southwest monsoon and retreating monsoon.
4. Write a short note on ‘Monsoon wind’.
• The word ’monsoon' is derived from the Arabic word 'Mausim' which means season.
• Originally this word was used by the Arab navigators several centuries ago.
• It is used to describe a system of seasonal reversal of winds along the shores of Indian ocean especially over the Arabian sea.
• It blows from the southwest to northeast during summer and from the north east to southwest during winter.
5. Name the four distinct seasons of India.
• Winter (Cold weather) season - (January - February).
• Pre Monsoon (Summer or hot weather) season - (March - May).
• Southwest Monsoon (Rainy) season - (June - September).
• Northeast Monsoon season - (October - December).
6. What is ‘burst of monsoon’?
• Prior to the onset of the southwest monsoon, the temperature in north India reaches up to 46°C.
• The sudden approach of monsoon wind over south India with lightning and thunder is termed as the ’Break' or 'Burst of Monsoon',
7. Name the areas which receive heavy rainfall.
• The Western coast
• South Meghalaya
• Arunachal Pradesh
8. State the places of mangrove forests in India.
• The delta of Ganga - Brahmaputra.
• The deltas of Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna rivers are also known for Tidal Forests (Mongrove Forests).
9. Write any five biosphere reserves in India.
• Agasthyamalai - Kerala
• Sundarbans - West Bengal
• Great Nicobar - Andaman and Nicobar Islands
• Gulf of Mannar - Tamil Nadu
• Kachch - Gujarat