V. Answer briefly
1. How do you assess the importance of Sino-Japanese War?
• In 1894, Japan forced a war on China.
• In the 1894-95 Sino-Japanese war little Japan defeated China and surprised the world.
• The European powers did not like the victory of Japan. Though Russia, Germany and France warned Japan, Japan annexed the Liaotung Peninsula with Port Arthur.
• By this annexure Japan proved that it was the strongest nation in the East Asia.
2. Name the countries in the Triple Entente.
3. What were the three militant forms of nationalism in Europe?
• Jingoism (England)
• ‘ Kultur (Germany)
4. What do you know of trench warfare?
• Trenches or ditches dug by troops enabled soldiers to safely stand and protect themselves from enemy fire.
• The main lines of trenches were connected to each other and to the rear by a series of linking trenches through which food, ammunition, fresh troops, mail and orders were delivered.
• The battle of Marne is a memorable one for Trench Warfare.
5. What was the role of Mustafa Kemal Pasha?
• Mustafa Kemal Pasha played a remarkable role for Turkey's rebirth as a nation.
• Kemal Pasha modernised Turkey and changed it out of all recognition.
6. List out any two causes for the failure of the League of Nations.
• The League appeared to be an organisation of those who were victorious in the First World war.
• Since it lacked the military power of its own, it could not enforce its decisions.
• The founders of this peace organization underestimated the power of nationalism. The principles of "Collective Security" could not be applied in actual practice.